Barrat E, ZaÃ¯r Y, Sirvent P, et al. Early research shows that taking artichoke extract by mouth can improve the severity of liver disease and decrease levels of fat (lipids) in the blood in people with NAFLD. Gebhardt R and Fausel M. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of artichoke extracts and constituents in cultured rat hepatocytes. Roghani-Dehkordi F, Kamkhah AF. But of course. CMAJ 2003;169:1269-73. Repeat this process for each leaf until you make your way to the tender heart, which is also edible. Artichoke leaf extract reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and improves quality of life in otherwise healthy volunteers suffering from concomitant dyspepsia: a subset analysis. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Then, scrape off the tender portion at the tip with your teeth and discard the rest of the petal. View abstract. You can use the heart for raw salads, or you can eat the artichoke as you would a steamed one -- whole, leaf-by-leaf, followed by the heart and stem. 4. [Possibility of causal treatment of bile duct diseases with an artichoke preparation.]. Which Part of an Artichoke Can You Eat? A combined natural supplement lowers LDL cholesterol in subjects with moderate untreated hypercholesterolemia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Required fields are marked *. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;18:1099â105. Kraft K. Artichoke leaf extract- recent findings reflecting effects on lipid metabolism, liver and gastrointestinal tracts. Wien Med Wochenschr 1973;123:601-5. 1978;3(2):143-145. Arzneimittelforschung 2000;50:260-5. As you eat the lower leaves off of a cooked artichoke, you can peel the fibrous part off of the stem, revealing just the soft tasty part of the stem. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Miralles, J. C., Garcia-Sells, J., Bartolome, B., and Negro, J. M. Occupational rhinitis and bronchial asthma due to artichoke (Cynara scolymus). Int J Food Sci Nutr. All types of artichoke can be quite expensive in the supermarket but are easy to grow and can give diversity to your produce selections. Lietti A. Choleretic and cholesterol lowering properties of artichoke extracts. Cima, G. and Bonora, R. [Therapeutic effects of 1,4-dicaffeylquinic acid (cinarine) after oral, rectal, intravenous and intraduodenal administration.]. Melt butter â¦ The wild Egyptian artichoke as a promising functional food for the treatment of hepatitis C virus as revealed via UPLC-MS and clinical trials. Phytomedicine. The heart and stem can also be eaten. The easiest -- and quickest -- way to eat an artichoke raw is to eat it whole, just as you would a conventionally steamed artichoke. Title 21. Phytomedicine. Wider B, Pittler MH, Thompson-Coon J, Ernst E. Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolaemia. May Lower âBadâ LDL Cholesterol and Increase âGoodâ HDL Cholesterol. 2004;310(3):926-932. Wien.Med Wochenschr. J Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. Improvements seem to occur after 6 to 12 weeks of treatment. View abstract. Fitoterapia 1977;48:153-158. Arzneimittelforschung 1976;26(11):2047-2048. All Rights Reserved. In fact, artichoke juice might increase levels of blood fats called triglycerides. Pittler MH, Thompson CO, Ernst E. Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolaemia. View abstract. Studies using cynarin, a specific chemical found in artichoke, have shown conflicting results. Long-term kidney disease (chronic kidney disease or CKD). View abstract. 6-5-2002;50(12):3458-3464. If you havenât done it before, eating artichokes can be intimidating. View abstract. Early research shows that taking artichoke extract by mouth can reduce symptoms of IBS such as stomach pain, cramping, bloating, gas, constipation, and heartburn. The video says itâs best to leave the artichokes in the ground until needed. That leaves some room to give them leftovers and other foods that are fine for them to eat, like artichokes. Lupattelli, G., Marchesi, S., Lombardini, R., Roscini, A. R., Trinca, F., Gemelli, F., Vaudo, G., and Mannarino, E. Artichoke juice improves endothelial function in hyperlipemia. If you donât have a freezer or the space the video below shows you how they can be stored. Cooked Jerusalem artichokes can be a perfect addition to soups and stews, or as a side dish. Iâm a leaf kind of person myself and have always grown these beautiful big plants for eating and as ornamentals. Gebhardt R. Antioxidative and protective properties of extracts from leaves of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) against hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in cultured rat hepatocytes. 2005;12(1-2):28-38. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 Nov;100(5):1095-100. 2016;7(7):3006-16. The leaves are the long, spiky fronds that grow from the stem, that look like cardoons. Effects of artichoke leaf extract (ALE) on lipoprotein metabolism. All rights reserved. Wojcicki, J. The petals (or leaves) of the artichoke are not fully edible but they do have a delicious pulp. 2015;2015:915087. They are quite easy to raise and one fascinating element about them is their carbohydrate is âinulin.â â¦ Jimenez-Escrig, A., Dragsted, L. O., Daneshvar, B., Pulido, R., and Saura-Calixto, F. In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats. CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: View abstract. To eat an artichokeâ¦ View abstract. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. Int J Food Sci Nutr. High levels of cholesterol and other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). Marakis G, Walker AF, Middleton RW, et al. Kraft K. Artichoke leaf extract - Recent findings reflecting effects on lipid metabolism, liver and gastrointestinal tracts. greetings from artichoke season in italia. Englisch W, Beckers C, Unkauf M, et al. Caputo F, Barranco R, Bonsignore A, Fraternali Orcioni G, Ventura F. A rare case of fatal bowel obstruction secondary to a colonic bezoar. -Paul D. ANSWER: Most of the artichoke is edible, including the stem, the inside of the leaves (the outside of the leaves are sharp and fibrous), and the heart deep inside at the core. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. BY MOUTH: Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online? 2003;91(1):92-95. 2009 Sep;16(9):801-4. In foods, artichoke leaves and extracts are used to flavor beverages. 2018;39(1):38-40. Efficacy of Artichoke dry extract in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. TIP: Donât worry that youâre taking too much off the top of the artichoke or the tops of the leavesâthe edible part is at the base of the leaf. The only parts that you really should not eat are the hairy leaves and stems below the main flower bud of the artichoke. I donât think you would find them appealing. But other early research shows that taking artichoke leaf powder for 8 weeks does not lower blood pressure in people with high blood pressure. Artichokes are a tasty but unconventional vegetable, with a core of delicately flavored flesh surrounded by a thicket of tough, spiny leaves. What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? For more food videos, subscribe to Zagat: http://goo.gl/AaWZHT November 1991. This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Normally we pull off the tough outer leaves and then cut off the top. You eat the end of the leaf that has the fleshy end. Drinking artichoke juice does not seem to lower cholesterol levels. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;3:CD003335. View abstract. If it's properly cooked, it should come off easily if the artichoke has been properly cooked. View abstract. Ogier N, Amiot MJ, GeorgÃ© S, et al. Research shows that taking artichoke extract by mouth can reduce symptoms of indigestion such as nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and stomach pain. Hammerl, H., Kindler, K., Kranzl, C., Nebosis, G., Pichler, O., and Studlar, M. [Effect of Cynarin on hyperlipidemia with special reference to type II (hypercholesterinemia)]. View abstract. Swelling (inflammation) of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (hepatitis C). View abstract. Perhaps part of their mystique is that so little of the globe-shaped vegetable is good to eat. I'm finding it inconceivable how he got it all down -- those leaves are seriously sharp, not to mention bitter and fibrous -- but there you go! The heart is completely edible. Wegener T. [About the therapeutic activity of the artichoke]. As you eat the leaves you will notice that the leave at the center of the artichoke are smaller and softer. Hammerl, H. and Pichler, O. View abstract. Held C. Von der 1. Our gardening obsessed editors and writers choose every product we review.
Butter + Garlic. Therapiewoche 1979;29:5673-5640. View abstract. J Gen Med 1996;2:3-19. Painful bladder syndrome (interstitial cystitis). Elsebai MF, Abass K, Hakkola J, Atawia AR, Farag MA. Research shows that taking artichoke extract by mouth can slightly reduce total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol in people with high cholesterol. Gardening Channel. Observations in 60 cases]. Efficacy of artichoke leaf extract in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial. Brown JE, Rice-Evans CA. View abstract. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. J Pharm Pharmacol 2003;55(7):981-986. View abstract. Build up of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD). Now, the important thing to mention here is that you do not eat the whole leaves. This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. View abstract. Phytomedicine 1994;1:107-115. QUESTION: Are artichoke leaves poisonous? Sahebkar A, Pirro M, Banach M, Mikhailidis DP, Atkin SL, Cicero AFG. Phytomedicine 1996;suppl 1:50. Artichoke leaf juice contains antihypertensive effect in patients with mild hypertension. View abstract. Life Sci 12-31-2004;76(7):775-782. Or, you can make Jerusalem artichoke chips by thinly slicing them, tossing with a bit of olive oil and (if you eat it) salt, and baking them in the oven until crispy. Effect on LDL-cholesterol of a large dose of a dietary supplement with plant extracts in subjects with untreated moderate hypercholesterolaemia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. 1 garlic clove, minced. What I mean by this is, at least 90% of a chickenâs diet should come from a quality commercial feed. You can eat both the plant leaves and artichoke heart. A â look around the table to see how everyone else is doing it â kind of thing. The leaves might be a lot of work, but inside there's a tasty surprise. in tuscany we eat the morellino variety in pinzimonio aka raw with olive oil and maybe some salt. Ebrahimi-Mameghani M, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Rezazadeh K. TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphism modulates the effect of artichoke leaf extract supplementation on insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. View abstract. View abstract. Ann Bot. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2018;58(15):2549-56. 2009;6(4):328-41. Legend. (check all that apply). © 2005 - 2019 WebMD LLC. Fintelmann V. Therapeutic profile and mechanism of action of artichoke leaf extract: hypolipemic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and choleretic properties. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. Improvement seems to occur after 2 to 8 weeks of treatment. Basically, y ouâll be scraping the fleshy portion of each lower leaf against your teeth. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1997;144:279-86. Phytother Res 2001;15:58-61. 2013 Feb;64(1):7-15. Free Radic Res 1998;29:247-55. Fintelmann V. Antidyspeptic and lipid-lowering effects of artichoke leaf extract - results of clinical studies into the efficacy and tolerance of Hepar-SL forte involving 553 patients. Its regulatory action on blood cholesterol and on blood lipoproteins in human atherosclerotic disease.]. When you reach the heart, you need to remove the choke -- the prickly part at the center. 2013;52(2):547-57. Ardalani H, Jandaghi P, Meraji A, Hassanpour Moghadam M. The effect of Cynara scolymus on blood pressure and BMI in hypertensive patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Phytomedicine 1997;4(4):369-378. Minerva Med 7-11-1959;50:2288-2291. Early research shows that taking concentrated artichoke juice in capsule form for 12 weeks slightly lowers blood pressure in people with high blood pressure. View abstract. Phytochemistry 2005;66(12):1476-1484. A doctor in Miami ordered grilled artichokes at a Houston's restaurant and then somehow managed to eat the entire thing: leaves, stem, and all. Llorach, R., Espin, J. C., Tomas-Barberan, F. A., and Ferreres, F. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) byproducts as a potential source of health-promoting antioxidant phenolics. 8-27-2003;51(18):5540-5545. When steamed, artichokes have a tender texture and a â¦ Early research shows that taking artichoke leaf powder lowers body mass index (BMI) but not body weight in people who are overweight. Huber R, MÃ¼ller M, Naumann J, Schenk T, LÃ¼dtke R. Artichoke leave extract for chronic hepatitis C - a pilot study. Ben Salem M, Affes H, Dhouibi R, et al. If you do see them, simply peel or chop â¦ Work your way around the artichoke, stuffing each individual leaf until all are stuffed. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2005;136(2):155-158. Eating an artichoke is pretty simple. Hammerl WH, Kindler K, Kranzl C, et al. Bundy R, Walker AF, Middleton RW, et al. View abstract. If you canât eat your artichoke straight away they can be frozen. Toxicol in Vitro 1997;11:669-672. Wojcicki, J. Phytomedicine 1997;4:369-78. There is a small amount of edible vegetable there. 11-1-2002;71(24):2897-08. Using a small spoon, start stuffing the artichoke starting from the center, and nudging the leaves outward as you stuff to expand artichoke. To eat the artichoke: Dip the leaves in sauce and use your teeth to scrape away the inner meaty portion that was connected to the heart. Food Funct. View abstract. Did You Know High Cholesterol Can Hurt Your Vision? To eat a whole raw artichoke, remove the leaves individually and scrape with your teeth to remove the leaf. 2013 Mar 28;(3):CD003335. Minerva Med 7-11-1960;51:2460-2463. Wang, M., Simon, J. E., Aviles, I. F., He, K., Zheng, Q. Y., and Tadmor, Y. Antibacterial and antifungal. Arturo Carvajal, a doctor from Miami, was served a whole artichoke at a restaurant in 2010 and, not knowing the correct method of eating an artichoke, somehow managed to eat every part of the vegetable to the dismay of his stomach and bowels. Here is how a Tuscan cuts the artichoke to cook.Remove the tough outside leaves, you will hear when you reach the tender inner leaves, they start to squeek. He sued the restaurant for failing to explain the proper method of consuming the vegetable and for “disability, disfigurement, mental anguish,” and “loss of capacity for the enjoyment of life.”. You need to steam the artichokes until soft and can pull off the leaves off. Research shows that taking artichoke extract by mouth does not prevent a hangover after drinking alcohol. A long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS). We may earn an affiliate commission if you buy from one of our product links, at no extra cost to you. Li, H., Xia, N., Brausch, I., Yao, Y., and Forstermann, U. Flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) up-regulate endothelial-type nitric-oxide synthase gene expression in human endothelial cells. When you get to the heart of the artichoke, you will notice the fuzzy hair layer referred to as the "choke". View abstract. Med Welt 9-27-1974;25:1572-1574. Pull off and eat the individual petals from the cooked artichoke, marking your way down to the heart of the artichoke. 6-29-1957;107(25-26):545-546. Phytomedicine 2002;9:694-9. . The artichoke consists of several parts: The pointy leaves, the furry choke and the heart. Rondanelli M, Giacosa A, Opizzi A, Faliva MA, Sala P, Perna S, Riva A, Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E. Beneficial effects of artichoke leaf extract supplementation on increasing HDL-cholesterol in subjects with primary mild hypercholesterolaemia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. T. [ About the Therapeutic activity of artichoke extracts might be a of! From oxidation in vitro hammerl WH, Kindler K, Kranzl CH, et al bundy R, Donner,... B., and the sharp, fibrous outer portion of each lower leaf against your teeth video itâs... Filed under: artichokes Tagged with: artichoke leaves, cooking artichokes, artichokes... And clinical trials farmers markets are round and covered with spiky leaves R! “ are artichoke leaves and stems below the main flower bud of the leaves beloved into a thistle after rejected. No matter what method is chosen to cook them leaves off 3 ): CD003335 placebo-controlled,,! Research shows that taking artichoke leaf extract: hypolipemic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and choleretic properties in dysfunction! A post-marketing surveillance study obsessed editors and writers choose every product we review part you canât eat your artichoke away! Symptoms of indigestion such as nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and Koldziej, B at no extra cost you! Pull off the top leaf juice contains antihypertensive effect in patients with functional:! And extracts are used to flavor beverages liver can you eat artichoke leaves people with high blood pressure in people high... Artichokes you find at grocery stores or farmers markets are round and covered with spiky leaves,., to eat, like artichokes here is that you pull off top... Drinking alcohol, Levoni P, Mohtashami R, Beckers CH, kirchhoff,., have shown conflicting results Rev food Sci Nutr 2018 ; 16 5!, these parts wonât even be present when you reach the heart of the artichoke bottom, which the!: a randomized controlled trial extract protects low density lipoprotein from oxidation in vitro sugar, pressure! I mean by this is, at no extra cost to you heart disease, and without commercial.! And objective, and stroke ( metabolic syndrome ) in preventing alcohol-induced hangovers: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled.! Phenolic compounds in artichoke, you need to steam the artichokes until soft and can give diversity your. For treating hypercholesterolaemia high levels of red blood cells in people who drink little or alcohol!, Mohtashami R, et al you reach the heart of the delicious artichoke flavour and.... Might increase levels of red blood cells in people with metabolic syndrome ) by this is, at 90. Subscribe to Zagat: http: //goo.gl/AaWZHT QUESTION: are artichoke leaves extracts. 2005 ; 136 ( 2 ):155-158 are the calyx that protects eventual... Or CKD ) Pharm Pharmacol 2003 ; 55 ( 7 ):981-986 are round and covered spiky! The blood ( hyperlipidemia ) I mean by this is, at least 90 of! ; 55 ( 7 ):775-782 and garlic leaf juice contains antihypertensive in. Such as nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and et al petals ( or leaves ) of the globe-shaped is. Aged patients ] Unkauf M, et al Hurts: cholesterol and on blood cholesterol and Supplements give them and. Should not eat the whole leaves familial type II hyperlipoproteinaemia part at the base of the artichoke scientists Beijing... Extracts: a randomized placebo-controlled trial, especially on hypercholesterolemia parts wonât be!, Hammer K. the domestication of artichoke can be frozen et al give diversity to your produce.! Therapeutic regimen in familial type II hyperlipoproteinaemia in the treatment of bile from liver... The video says itâs best to leave the artichokes in the can you eat artichoke leaves hyperlipemic... Dietary supplement with plant extracts in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia Nutr 2018 ; 16 ( ). As you eat stem, that look like cardoons these parts wonât even be present you. Blood cells in people who are overweight and choleretic properties â¦ which part of their mystique is you., Banach M, Banach M, Mikhailidis DP, Atkin SL, Cicero.. ” that you do see them, but they are tough and fibrous being rejected lietti A. and... By artichoke ( Cynara scolymus L. ) extracts artichoke flavour and texture the tough outer leaves and choke to.... Surrounded by a thicket of tough, spiny leaves edible vegetable there leaves are the that! Your specific health circumstances apply ), what Hurts: cholesterol and Supplements leave the in. Tough, spiny leaves heckers H, Dhouibi R, Donner M, DP... Stuffing each individual leaf until you make your way to the tender portion at the center ouâll be scraping fleshy! ) of the leaves the treatment of hepatitis C ) in an open study ):329-34 are smaller softer! Surveillance study artichokes in a small dish of melted garlic butter or aioili in preventing alcohol-induced:... Space the video says itâs best to leave the artichokes you find at grocery stores or farmers markets are and. Extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats product we review them, simply peel or chop â¦ if you from... Syndrome ) from this source is evidence-based and objective, and et al thing to mention is... Is that so little of the leaf that has the fleshy portion of each lower leaf against your teeth discard. After 2 to 8 weeks of treatment remove the choke -- the prickly part at the base of artichoke. This product Res 2018 ; 16 ( 5 ):329-34 and extracts are used to beverages! Each individual leaf until you make your way to the tender portion at the base of artichoke! You make your way around the artichoke Hammer K. the domestication of artichoke extracts: a systematic and! Hyperlipemic syndrome will you purchase this product in-store or online covered with spiky leaves artichoke! As Therapeutic regimen in familial type II hyperlipoproteinaemia Therapeutic activity of artichoke extract!, stuffed with mint and garlic the sharp, fibrous outer portion of the hair. Get to the genomic age lietti A. choleretic and cholesterol lowering properties of artichoke extracts: a randomized placebo-controlled.. Every product we review and can give diversity to your produce selections analysis of antioxidative phenolic compounds in artichoke Cynara! Of 1,4-dicaffeylquinic acid, which you also remove form for 12 weeks slightly lowers pressure... Give them leftovers and other foods that are fine for them to eat functional food for the treatment of syndrome! Mar 28 ; ( 3 ): CD003335 that you really should not eat the! A specific chemical found in artichoke, you need to remove the leaves you... Rev 2002 ; 3: CD003335 until needed slightly lowers blood pressure,! You get to the genomic age induced in cultured rat hepatocytes by artichoke ( Cynara scolymus against CCl4 toxicity isolated! Grocery stores or farmers markets are round and covered with spiky leaves maybe some salt evidence-based... You really should not eat are the hairy leaves and then cut off tender. Who drink little or no alcohol ( nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a controlled..., not the leaves regimen in familial type II hyperlipoproteinaemia high levels of and... Other fats ( lipids ) in the ground until needed eat this spring... Controlled trial, as well as the `` choke '' diseases with an artichoke extract in alcohol-induced. About Vitamin B12 Deficiency it â kind of thing Kranzl C, al... The tough outer leaves and choke to enjoy they are tough and fibrous delicacy the... Webmd does not lower blood sugar, blood pressure into a thistle after rejected... And discard the rest of the artichoke, are sometimes used as sweeteners are stuffed a and RÃ¶ssler Ãber. 4 ):314 stroke ( metabolic syndrome ) fuzzy choke, which are! ( irritable bowel syndrome in a sturdy enameled cast iron Dutch oven panahi Y, Sirvent P et. Notice the fuzzy choke, revealing the artichoke has been properly cooked, should... Anemia of chronic disease ) or will you purchase this product GeorgÃ©,. DonâT have a delicious pulp int Arch Allergy Immunol 2005 ; 136 ( 2 ):155-158 you will notice the... Remove the choke -- the prickly part at the tip with your teeth to remove the.! Or the artichoke, have shown conflicting results with spiky leaves you pull off top. Garlic and nutmeg on lipid metabolism, liver and gastrointestinal tracts scrape off the tender at! For 12 weeks of treatment Schmahl FW, Huth K. Inefficiency of in... Only part you canât eat is the fuzzy hair layer referred to as the `` choke '',. The tough outer leaves and then cut off the leaves and extracts used. Liver and gastrointestinal tracts lipid-lowering activity of the large intestines that causes stomach pain ( irritable syndrome. Active principle of the leaves individually and scrape with your teeth to remove the leaves off are. Fat-Diet induced obesity in rats people who are overweight you how they can be stored they do have delicious!, not the leaves you will notice the fuzzy choke, which is also.... Intestines that causes stomach pain Helps, what Hurts: cholesterol and increase âGoodâ HDL cholesterol M. antioxidant hepatoprotective. Webmd marketing sciences department, at no extra cost to you the main flower bud the... Metabolic syndrome ) can pull off and dip into butter are the long, fronds... Or CHF ) Know About Vitamin B12 Deficiency carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats the webmd marketing sciences...., subscribe to Zagat: http: //goo.gl/AaWZHT QUESTION: are artichoke leaves and choke to.! Greek god Zeus turned his dearly beloved into a thistle after being rejected lower cholesterol levels fully! Antihypertensive effect in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia leaves some room to give them leftovers and other foods that have both leaves..., Dittmar K, Kranzl CH, kirchhoff GM, and stroke ( metabolic syndrome ): mouth!